How Coronavirus lead to Great Delays in the Construction World?

Coronavirus lead to Great Delays in the Construction World

A picture adjacent to the catastrophe of economy of the country imparting to perform a major role needs to be studied. Construction delays are considered as time lag in completion of activities from its specified time as per contract which mostly supervene due to overcosts, overtime, disputes, negotiations etc. These causes got dominated by deadly virus COVID-19 creating a pandemic situation in whole world. Get to know the status of constructions, their reasons and ill-effects and safeguard steps to face the post pandemic situation throughout this article.

The nationwide shutdown has caused project delays due to supply chain disruptions, unavailability of manpower (reverse migration) and issues in obtaining project financings including liquidated crisis. These industries relies heavily on foreign suppliers and manufacturers of goods for construction materials, including steel, millwork, electrical and lighting equipments, etc. which now are currently halted. Cumulatively, the above circumstances would cause hindrance in meeting the obligations under the construction and engineering contracts and would lead to multiple legal wrangles for the industry post lifting of the current restrictions.

What are the effects on supply and demand?

Accordingly to a general survey, results denote how coronavirus affected the construction industry

Only economic downturn??? No, the crisis is also expected to hit long-term supply and demand, resulting in lasting shifts in investment patterns. Lack of demand for new commercial or industrial facilities and ambiguity will bring in several white elephants!

The value of residential buildings and infrastructure closely tracks GDP, the need for new construction activity is highly sensitive to GDP growth, even in longer-term models.

Worrying to buy new house after the pandemic? Then wait, the housing sale are going to affect tremendously in long run of home finance. Several cash-starved developers with unsold inventory may be forced to sell at discounted prices. Well, it won’t be a positive response. The prices of homes at various places will be restructured with respect to the demand and under-construction projects.

Also, lack of consumer confidence will negatively affect demand for housing construction or refurbishment.

What is Force Majeure?

There are a number of claims for relief that might become relevant due to the impact of the coronavirus. A key issue in this regard is the concept of Force Majeure.

A force majeure clause in a contract may excuse the contractor for delays caused by extraordinary events that a contractor cannot control such as fires, earthquakes, and even a pandemic! In construction contracts, it may justify an time extension to perform under the contract and financial cost compensation like overhead or remobilization associated with delays.

Not only compelling clause but also should be ensured that all necessary steps are taken in terms of monitoring and evaluating are likely to occur in the project as soon as they become foreseeable mitigate the consequences.

Safeguarding Steps

In construction, always additional costs are calculated for avoiding sudden hike in construction expense. Ultimately, now these costs will have to be borne by one of the contracting parties (either the employer or the contractor) or one of the sub-contractors or suppliers, depending on the allocation of risk in the relevant contracts.

Infact, documenting an impact regarding coronavirus would help too. Reviewing the contract with the counsel and find out measures to solve the issues and make allied arrangements before signing contract.

Role of an Engineer

Currently, most of the under-construction sites are permitted to resume the incomplete projects specifically in India. Though at many red zone places construction activity is still crawling. The government continues to follow social distancing among the limited labourers which still remains a concern, whereas contractors are trying to limit the contact of labourers outside camps. Coordinating among them and building an optimistic environment is very essential for an engineer.

For future concern of workable projects, one must consider how the impact of the coronavirus is dealt with in the contract. The force majeure might not lead a continued impact depending on the crisis of coronavirus changing drastically. As a remedy, new provision should be included in the contract which specifies the coronavirus as an event for the delays of project.

This is the situation we are going to face in post pandemic. Do you think the construction sector would be back on the track of economy? What are your views on this? (Mention your views in comment box)

Birds – Nature’s Best Engineers!

Human indeed has developed himself past several years in various disciplines of improving lifestyles. Concerning my blogs so far, we have seen about many buildings and monuments which are built by cement concrete, bricks, rocks, marbles, etc. Can anything think about a construction without these materials?

The answer is definitely a big NO! as the question of strength and durability comes into picture. But there’s someone else who builds a house for himself without these materials and any equipments, without anyone’s help and still much stronger withstanding all weather exposures. Something extraordinary about it’s identification is … It’s not an engineer!

Yes, birds are well best suited in these aspects to build their every nest unique and phenomenal to their species. It’s really an incredible thing to be wondered of having no knowledge of civil engineering, no any education university, no cement, no reinforcement and even no economy. Whenever we think about bird nests, most people may imagine the regular bowl-shaped receptacle of twigs and leaves, but birds nesting behaviours are as diverse as their courting rituals. If you keep your eyes peeled throughout late March and April, you may be able to see evidence of this remarkable workmanship taking place around you.

But how do birds, with only beaks as tools, turn these basic components into nests secure enough to take a growing family of nestlings, vying for their parent’s attentions and stretching their wings?

Baya Weaver bird’s nest

It would seem that beaks are very good tools for building. The weaver bird starts making a knot with a long blade of grass. Eventually then builds a circular structure, weaving blades using his beak and feet to built a ball-shaped nest. It’s a delicate business of the weaving in new material to create the nest cup.

Hummingbird’s nest

Hummingbirds are also one of the great wonders in all of nature; so tiny, yet so perfect. This North American creature builds tiny luxurious nests in trees or shrubs, mostly using plant fibers, downy feathers and animal hair, bound together by spider silk.

Hamerkop bird’s nest

Hamerkop, an African bird’s nest is a massive, roofed structure set up in the fork of a tree near water. 10,000 twigs, lined with mud for insulation and water-proofing takes months to construct a nest; surprisingly they aren’t satisfied with one, ought to built-up 4 nests every year, working all the year round.

Edible-nest swiflet

Nest from saliva!!! Edible-nest of Swiftlet is made exclusively out of the bird’s saliva. It is built in layers, usually over protruding rocks on inclined walls of a dark sea cave. Swiftlets nest in colonies of thousands!

Long tailed Tailorbird’s nest

The nest of Common Tailorbird is the end-product of ingenious needlework by the bird. Armed with its beak and a silk thread, the tailorbird pierces the edges of a large leaf and stitches them together. It builds its nest in the frame of the arched leaf. The nests are well-camouflaged as they are built among thick foliage.

Hole in bark of tree for Owl’s nest

A less labour-intensive way to make a nest is to use a hole that already exists. Many birds, including owls, take advantage of natural holes in trees as a ready-made place to bring up their young. While, the woodpeckers nest in cavities drilled into living pine trees. It takes years for a breeding pair to excavate one.

Seven Wonders of the World!

My mom yesterday acknowledged and praised me for creating a World Wonder! I wished what you imagined now was true but my wonder got limited upto cooking dinner. Well whenever we talk about wonders of the world our eyes start a slideshow of few pictures of beautiful structures and interestingly, these pictures are never exact seven. That’s why, it’s very important to know what are the wonders and how structurally they are designed for their life longevity. Learning about these will be quite easy if you follow the easy steps given below. Tap below START QUIZ for a short quiz of 5 questions. Answer these questions for understanding my remaining blog.

How was your experience regarding quiz? I’m sure you will get all your points cleared further.

Starting from the number seven, Pythagoras and his followers identified it as the lucky number because no number under ten could be divided by it. It was so special to him because it was not too big and not too small. As per my first question in the quiz, the Wonders of the World are listed under Ancient, Modern and Natural. The classic list of Seven Wonders of the Ancient World was originally compiled around the second century BC. Decades after decades, Greek historians wrote about the greatest monuments at the time.
They include –
(1) The Great Pyramid of Giza
(2) The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
(3) The Statue of Zeus at Olympia
(4) The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
(5) The Mausoleum of Haliranassus
(6) The Colossus of Rhodes
(7) The Lighthouse of Alexandria

The list comprised seven most impressive monuments of the Ancient World, some of which barely survived to the middle ages mostly due to earthquakes (from the quiz). Among the oldest references to the canonical list are the engravings by the Dutch artist Maertan van Heemskerck and Johann Fischer von Erlach’s History of Architecture.

The Great Pyramid of Giza

The winner of the survivor in those earthquakes is The Great Pyramid of Giza. It’s the only oldest structure of Seven Ancient Wonders which does not need speculations concerning its appearance, size and shape. Contrary to the common belief, only the Great Pyramid of Khufu is on top of the list of Wonders and not all three Great Pyramids. This great structure lost 10 m of it’s top from 145.75 m to around 136 m still rank is the tallest structure on the earth for more than 43 centuries. The sloping angle of its sides is 51 degrees and 51 minutes. Each side is carefully oriented with one of the cardinal points of the compass that is north, south, east and west. The maximum error between side lengths is astonishingly less than 0.1 %.

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon

The Hanging Gardens are the only one of the Seven Wonders for which the location has not been definitively established. Most recent archaeological excavations at the ancient city of Babylon in Iraq and covered the foundation of the palace. Other findings include the vaulted building with thick walls and irrigation well near the southern palace. A group of archaeologist surveyed the area of Southern palace and reconstructive the vaulted building as the Hanging Gardens. However, the Greek historian Strabo had stated that the gardens were situated By the River Euphrates. So others argue that the site is too far from the Euphrates to support the theory since the vaulted building is several hundreds of metres away. They reconstructed the site of the palace and locate the Gardens in the area stretching from the river to the palace. On the the river banks, recently discovered massive walls of 25 m thick may have been step to form terraces… ones described in Greek references.

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was created by a sculptor named Phidias. Zeus was considered the king of the Greek gods and this magnificent statue was created to honor him. Phidias began working on the statue around 440 BC. Years earlier, he had developed a technique to build enormous gold and ivory statues. This was done by erecting a wooden frame on which sheets of of metal and ivory were placed to provide the outer covering. Phidias’s workshop in Olympia still exist and is coincidentally or maybe not – identical in size and orientation to the temple of Zeus. There he sculpted and carved the different pieces of the statue before they were assembled in the temple. Many copies of the statue were made including a large prototype at Gyrene (Libya), however none of them survived to the present day.

The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

Decorated by bronze statues, The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus served as both a marketplace and a religious institution. The temple was used as a bank as no one dared to steal from a holy place! This logic is unbelievable! Looking towards its foundation, it was rectangular in form and made up of marble decorated with facade overlooking a spacious courtyard. Marble steps surrounding the building platform led to the high terrace which was approximately 80m × 130m in plan. The columns were 20 high with ionic capitals and carved circular sides. There were 127 columns in total aligned orthogonally over the whole platform area except for Central cellar or house of Goddess. Today the site of the temple, is marked by a single column constructed of dissociated fragments discovered on the site.

The Mausoleum at Haliranassus

The finished structure of the Mausoleum was considered to be such an aesthetic triumph that Antipater of Sidon identified it as one of his Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Structural beauty was enhanced by overlying the foundation with stepped podium sides decorated with statues of people, lions, horses and other animals. The colonnade supported a pyramid roof which was in turn decorated with statues. A statue of a chariot pulled by four horses adorned the top of the tomb. Because the statues were of people and animals, the Mausoleum was a special place in history, as it was not dedicated to the gods of Ancient Greece. It was destroyed by successive earthquakes from the 12th to the 15th century; the last surviving of the six destroyed wonders.

The Colossus of Rhodes

Now, I’ll tell you about the Colossus starting from a great misconception regarding its appearance! It has long been believed that the Colossus stood in the front of the Mandraki harbour, one of many in the city of Rhodes, straddling it’s entrance. Given the height of the statue and the width of the harbour mouth, this picture is rather impossible than improbable. Moreover, the fallen Colossus would have blocked the harbour entrance. Recent studies suggest that it was erected either on the eastern promontory of Mandraki harbour or even further inland. The structure was gradually erected as the bronze form fortified with an iron and stone framework. Although today it disappeared from existence, the Ancient World Wonders inspired modern artists such as French sculptor Auguste Bartholdi best known by his famous work: The Statue of Liberty.

The Lighthouse of Alexandria

After Alexander the Great died, the first Ptolemy Soter announced himself king and commissioned the construction of The Lighthouse of Alexandria shortly thereafter. The light was produced by a furnace at the top and the tower was said to have been built mostly with solid blocks of limestone. The mysterious white marble cover could reflect the light tens of kilometres away and used to detect and burn enemy ships before they could reach the shore. From an architectural standpoint, the monument has been used as a model for many prototypes along the Mediterranean as far away as Spain. And from a linguistic standpoint, it give its name – Pharos to all the lighthouses in the world.

Modern Seven Wonders of the World

The human inquisitiveness is so wide that it would take centuries to explore the facts of the world. As you can see, The Great Wall of China, Christ the Redeemer Statue in Rio de Janerio, Machu Picchu in Peru, Chichen Itza, Roman Colosseum, Taj Mahal in India, Petra in Jordan are no were existed in Ancient Wonders of the World which we know today! However, this wonder series tries to achieve the impossible structural point of view all you wanted to know. Snap shooting some unknown information not readily found in internet was the aim of this blog. Surfing of information around the world doesn’t ends here.

Economy Insights: Jio-Facebook Deal

Past several days, a highlighting step has taken by Facebook and Jio in this jolted and disrupted Indian economy by the Coronavirus. It’s worth analysing who the potential winners and losers are in this deal, as well as any possible red flags. Facebook has a good reason to focus on Indian market, as it is banned from China and Indian digital sphere is growing rapidly. This is considered as the biggest investment in any Indian company up till now so this blog worths mentioning it.

What is Jio-Facebook Deal?

Facebook invests Rs 43,574 crore in Jio Platforms, a unit of Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL), for a 9.99% stake, an allcash deal that will help the oil-toretail conglomerate reduce debt and strengthen the social media company’s presence in its largest market, especially for its WhatsApp unit. That means, Facebook is investing $5.7 billion in 9.99 per cent of Jio thus valuing Jio at roughly $57 billion.

Jio Platforms is the parent of phone and data unit Reliance Jio Infocomm and various digital app platforms such as JioMart, Jio-Saavn and JioCinema. Facebook will get a seat on the board of Jio Platforms, along with that of an observer, Jio strategy head Anshuman Thakur said on a conference call with reporters. He added that WhatsApp and Jio will remain independent entities with their own business models and compete where necessary, in line with respective business models and collaborate in other areas where they see synergies.

How this deal benefits the people of India?

Jio Platforms, Reliance Retail have signed a commercial pact to cross leverage ecommerce platform JioMart and WhatsApp, to grow both businesses as the two companies stated. The companies will work closely to ensure that the consumers are able to access the nearest kiranas (grocery stores) who can provide products and services to their homes by transacting seamlessly with JioMart using WhatsApp. This deal will help millions of small businesses and people relying on them.

Ambani says, “In the very near future, JioMart, Jio’s digital new commerce platform and WhatsApp will empower nearly 3 crore small kirana stores to digitally transact with every customer in their neighborhood. This means all of you can order and get faster delivery of day to day items, from nearby local shops.”

The investment by Facebook will focus on collaborating with Jio to create new ways for people and businesses to operate more effectively in the growing digital economy. Facebook said, “One focus of our collaboration with Jio will be creating new ways for people and businesses to operate more effectively in the growing digital economy.”

Also, massive investment by Facebook values Jio Platforms amongst the top 5 listed companies in India by market capitalization (within just three and a half years of launch of commercial services).

What the two companies say about their deal?

Reliance Industries Limited, Jio Platforms Limited and Facebook, Inc. today announced the signing of binding agreements for an investment of Rs 43,574 crore by Facebook into Jio Platforms,” RIL said. “This investment by Facebook values Jio Platforms at Rs 4.62 lakh crore pre-money enterprise value.” RIL said that this was the world’s largest investment for a minority stake by a technology company and the largest foreign direct investment in technology sector in India.

At the core of our partnership is the commitment that Mark Zuckerberg, founder of Facebook, and I share for the all-round digital transformation of India and for serving all Indians… In the post-corona era, I am confident of India’s economic recovery and resurgence in the shortest period of time,” said Mukesh Ambani, Chairman and MD of RIL, in the statement. “The partnership will surely make an important contribution to this transformation.”

While on either side, Facebook counts India as its largest Market with 388 million monthly users. WhatsApp has 400 million users in the country, also the most in the world. Zuckerberg said, “This is special important right now, because small businesses are the core of every economy and they need our support. India has more than 60 million small business is and millions of people rely on them for jobs.”

He added, “With communities around the world in lockdown, many of these entrepreneurs need digital tools they can rely on to find and communicate with customers and grow their businesses. We’re looking forward to get started.”

Will the deal really benefit India? Cons of deal?

I think this is the best question arises after listing all the mentioned benefits for the people. In this situation of coronavirus crisis, losses (human life or property) are faced by everyone making this as very important to know.

The Facebook – Jio deal is purely commercial in nature as it will help reduce RIL’s debt burden. So, will it be only commercial deal to provide relief from debt for RIL? – is an unanswered question till now. As I mentioned earlier, in less than four years, Jio has brought more than 388 million people online, fueling the creation of innovative new enterprises and now planning to connect people in new ways. Facebook seems to also spread its hands wide over!

Contradicting above sentences, Mukesh Ambani has grown a sprinter’s pace to become India’s largest telecom company. We’ve seen that he offered cut-throat mobile internet prices and including chat services, movies, games and music. If properly planned and implemented, the Facebook-Jio deal may turn the table in favour of Indian Economy. The Government of India, TRAI and other regulatory authorities have important role to play in this regard.


JioFacebook Deal on Awaaz Adda at CNBC Awaaz


The purpose of this article is to provide information in quite readable way. The information is true to the news reports and references mentioned. The Awaaz Adda show clipping is provided to have more detailed information as CNBC TV18 is a part of Reliance Industries.

Construction of Gulabjamun | A Delicious Indian Sweet Dish

“Is Shreya mad for talking something unlike of cement and food or going tangent to the topic of construction technology?” No, nothing happened like that; I’m still gonna share innovations and ideas in construction technology. Well, the title seems to be unheard but not different from what we use today. An Indian sweet dish, Gulabjamun is irresistible and appetizing for almost everyone aware of it. Today, on my birthday I gave a thought of sharing this on blog rather than simply enjoying licking all the sweet myself.

Most of the building structures are gone through the process of concreting, including right from all materials to finishing. Knowingly unknowingly we do the same for preparing Gulabjamuns. They are soft delicious berry sized balls dunked in rose flavored sugar syrup. It’s not easy what it seems; also requires thorough measurements, precautions and proper finishing otherwise it might develope cracks and fail in extreme exposure.

Let’s try to analogue the concreting technique with Gulabjamuns. The first step to list out all the ingredients with its suitable proportions. This process is called as batching in civil engineering’s language. For the concrete to be consistent, the quantities cement, aggregates, water and other chemicals (admixture) are accurately designed.

Ingredients of Concrete and Gulabjamun respectively

As ingredients are ready, the next step is mixing. Concrete mixture can be done by machine mix or hand mix. In Gulabjamuns, we perform a hand mix process for flour, milk powder and water/milk; knead it to make a smooth dough. Talking about admixture, many brains reading this have surely raised a question of what admixture is added in Gulabjamun??? Well, we can invite lemon juice or yoghurt to make it consistent.

Berry sized balls are made from the dough and fry them in medium heated oil until golden brown. Don’t worry, we don’t mould concrete into balls, but definitely formworks are placed to mould them into columns, beams, foundation blocks, etc. Similarity in both cases is taking care that it should be smooth without developing cracks so that external weather doesn’t affect it.

Concrete column (before and after formwork)
Gulabjamun balls (before frying)

After the well compacted concrete is ready, the formwork is removed. It’s kept ready for curing till 7 days. Curing methods like water curing, steam curing, electrical curing are also practiced. Besides, our Gulabjamuns are also ready fried brown and prepared to dive in hot sugar syrup. Unlike concrete, this sweet is kept in sugar syrup only for 1-2 hours.

The last step is finishing. Grinding and polishing is done in concreting. For Gulabjamuns, they are served with chopped dry fruits. There’s one additional step in Gulabjamun i.e. eating! I hope you all have liked this construction and sorry for making you hungry.

Tasty Tasty Gulabjamuns!

Knowing Cement

(Today, two of my friends will help you informing about cement which is quite familiar as widely used in construction. Usually while conversation they often meet-up a battle ground yet they follow rules of friendliness quite well.)

Chiru: Hey what happened to your shirt?

Piu: Don’t ask, a grey powder fall on shirt while roaming in my under-construction house.

Chiru: Idiot, it’s called cement, substance used widely for construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together. It is mostly formed in concrete form i.e. a mixture of cement, sand (fine aggregates), gravel (coarse aggregates) and bind with water.

Cement mixture for concreting (source: internet)

Piu: How great our scientists invented this material for construction! I think they must be inspired from me.

Chiru: So unfortunate to tell that the occurrence of cement was from twelve million years ago. A deposit of cement was formed after an occurrence of oil shale located near to a bed of limestone burned due to natural causes. These were investigated in the 1960s and 1970s. They made from volcanic ash, pulverized bricks later added to lime for hydraulic binder, people referred as cementum, cimentum, cäment, and then cement.

Piu: But I know that the structures without cement built since ancient period are remarkable for their longevity!

Chiru: Yes, I’ll tell you some facts since antiquity. The Babylonians and Assyrians used bitumen to bind together burnt brick or alabaster slabs whereas in Egypt stone blocks were cemented together with a sand mortar and roughly burnt gypsum, which often contained calcium carbonate. Greeks and Crete used lime (calcium oxide). Later, the combination of hydrated non-hydraulic lime and a pozzolan produced a hydraulic mixture used by Ancient Macedonians and after three centuries by Romans on a large scale. The huge dome of the Pantheon in Rome and the massive Baths of Caracalla are examples made from these concretes, many of which still stand. The technical knowledge of hydraulic cement production was formalized by French and British engineers in the 18th century.

Piu: Well well, I’m too now excited to tell something that was once spelled from my 8th grade history teacher. The Spanish introduced tabby to Americas in 16th century. It was peculiar in content due to oyster-shell lime, sand, and whole oyster shells to form a concrete. In the South Atlantic seaboard of the United States, tabby relying on the oyster-shell middens was used in house construction from the 1730s to 1860s.

Chiru: Your efforts are appreciated to prove me wrong in assuming you brutish.

Piu: Taking this partly as a compliment, I would like to know further about cement used now.

Chiru: Surely, the modern development began along with the industrial revolution (1800s). We have definite proportion of chemical quantities defining the type and other characteristics of the cement. Most often preferred are Portland cement or Portland cement blends, but industry also uses other cements.
This cement is made by heating limestone with other materials like clay to 1450 °C in a kiln, that liberates a molecule of carbon dioxide (calcination) from the calcium carbonate to form calcium oxide, which then chemically combines with the other materials in the mix to form calcium silicates and other cementitious compounds. The resulting called ‘clinker’, is then ground with a small amount of gypsum into a powder to make Ordinary Portland cement (OPC).

Cement plant in Ethiopia (source: internet)

Piu: Cement is used everywhere in the world, that means so much of lime and chemicals?

Chiru: The raw materials used in cement manufactures are extracted in large quarries, typically over 2.5 million tonnes per year! Nevertheless, such sedimentary rocks may vary considerably in their chemistry and properties, thus in their suitability. It is essential that chemical variation within the deposit is known so that development can be planned, and proper blending of stockpiles can consistently achieve the desired chemistry. Alternative materials include marble, chalk, marl, shell deposits, blastfurnace slag and alkali waste, which are endorsed by special features strengthening the quality of the cement.

Piu: I’ve heard about ample of construction projects in India, wondering how much India produces the cement!!!

Chiru: Only 7%

Piu: Seriously!

Chiru: Yes, and still being the second largest cement producer in the world. India produces around 500 million tonnes and goals to achieve 550 MT. China remains first (around 2500 MT) past 18 years consistently producing the largest cement quantity and exporting to other countries.

World Cement Production as per 2014 (source: internet)

Piu: I think I should also contribute some tonnes to the society.

Chiru: But I think going back home would help you now the most.

The journey of HEIGHTS

Burj Khalifa in Dubai was the only tallest building known to me so far unless I piled up a list for all tall buildings since centuries. My pen stroked word by word, eyes grooming every sentence, face puzzles question mark and my brain full of exclamations! This journey brought my all blurred knowledge on paper finally satisfied.

The trend of tallest buildings started nearly 4000 years ago! 145 metres high ‘The Great Pyramid of Giza’, Egypt was built and other buildings raised over. Let’s not go so back, many structures have a remarkable achievement in their probe. Many of you might get the technical info from internet, but learning something knowledgeable needs an Oh Wow information. So go through the whole blog!

      Country                    : Philadelphia, USA
      Height (meter/feet): 167/548
      Floors                        : 9
      Completion year     : 1901
      Tallest period           : 1894 to 1908
      Do you know?
      This is the world’s largest free standing masonry building made of brick, white marble, limestone and granite and functions as the seat of government for the city of Philadelphia.

      Country                     : New York City, USA
      Height (meter/feet): 187/612
      Floors                        : 41 (+1 ground)
      Completion year     : 1908
      Demolished              : 1968
      Tallest period           : 1908 to 1909
      Do you know?
      The fourth-tallest building destroyed and the second-tallest to be purposely demolished by its owner.

      Country                     : New York City, USA
      Height (meter/feet): 213/700
      Floors                        : 50
      Completion year     : 1909
      Tallest period           : 1909 to 1913
      Do you know?
      It’s composed of two sections- a 700 ft tall tower at the northwest corner of the block, at Madison Avenue and 24th Street and a shorter east wing occupying the remainder of the block bounded by Madison Avenue, Park Avenue South, 23rd Street and 24th Street.

      Country                     : New York City, USA
      Height (meter/feet): 241/792
      Floors                        : 55
      Completion year     : 1912
      Tallest period           : 1913 to 1930
      Do you know?
      It remains one of the 100 tallest buildings
in the United States, more than a century
after its construction.

      Country                     : 40 Wall Street, New York City, USA
      Height (meter/feet): 283/927
      Floors                        : 72
      Completion year     : 1930
      Tallest period           : Apr 1930 to May 27, 1930
      Do you know?
      This received the title of the world’s tallest building by competing against Woolworth Building in 1928. It was called as ‘Race into the sky’.

      Country                     : New York City, USA
      Height (meter/feet): 319/ 1046
      Floors                        : 77
      Completion year     : 1930
      Tallest period           : May 27, 1930 to May 1, 1930
      Do you know?
      Competition with 40 Wall Street and the Empire State Building to become the world’s tallest building. Although the building was built and designed for the car manufacturer,
the corporation did not pay for its construction and never owned it; rather, Walter Chrysler (Chief of the corporation) decided to pay for it himself so that his children could inherit it.

      Country                     : New York City, USA
      Height (meter/feet): 381/1250
      Floors                        : 102
      Completion year     : 1931
      Tallest period           : 1931 to 1970 (City tallest until 2012)
      Do you know?
      This structure is known as an American cultural icon featured in more than 250 TV shows and movies since 1933. The tower has been named as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers.

      Country                     : New York City, USA
      Height (meter/feet): 417/1368
      Floors                        : 1 and 2 WTC: 110 floors, 3 WTC: 22 floors, 4 and 5 WTC: 9 floors, 6 WTC: 8 floors, 7 WTC: 47 floors
      Completion year     : 1964
      Demolished              : 2001
      Tallest period           : 1970 to 1973
      Do you know?
      It had major role in popular culture of New York City and was depicted in 472 films!

      Country                     : Chicago, USA
      Height (meter/feet): 442/1451
      Floors                        : 110 (+3 basement floors)
      Completion year     : 1973
      Tallest period           : 1973 to 1998
      Do you know?
      First building designed innovatively as nine square “tubes” (separate buildings), clustered in a 3×3 matrix forming a square base with 225-foot (69 m) sides.

      Country                     : Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
      Height (meter/feet): 452/1483
      Floors                        : 88 (+5 below ground)
      Completion year     : 1998
      Tallest period           : 1998 to 2004
      Do you know?
      Designed with steel and glass facade to resemble motifs in Islamic art and the cross-section is similar to bottom of Qutub Minar.

(11) TAIPEI 101
      Country                     : Taipei, Taiwan
      Height (meter/feet): 509/1671
      Floors                        : 101
      Completion year     : 2004
      Tallest period           : 2004 to 2010
      Do you know?
      Platinum rated structure withstands the Pacific Rim’s earthquakes and the region’s tropical storms.

      Country                     : Dubai, UAE
      Height (meter/feet): 828/2717
      Floors                        : 154 +9 maintenance
      Completion year     : 2010
      Do you know?
      Existing tallest building in the world winning awards and records also remarks in several suicide cases.

This overviews that New York City has started its journey quite earlier. Anyways the list doesn’t end here. Jeddah Tower in Saudi Arabia is planning to be the world’s first 1 km (3,281 ft) high building yet paused for today. Dubai is also not satisfied with the great Burj Khalifa, constructing Dubai Creek Tower until 2021. This post-war era has brought many skyscrapers limiting to sky in world’s most developed cities today.

Our duty towards construction

Construction is the well known process for men of building houses with some unskilled labours. Thank you for reading the misconcepted sentence. Yes, It’s often seen with an eye of simplicity and frivolous job, which isn’t. We are in much of society’s mindset that a myth is more nurtured than a fact.

Call me old fashioned, but I believe there’s something to be said for doing good, honest work. Construction is sort of the unsung hero of our culture; vital to our infrastructure. Skilled tradesman build the places we work in, the homes we live and play in, the roads we commute on, and more. Economy’s strength is tightly linked to construction industry keeping country to move forward. A construction site is moreover different from a person sitting in front of laptop obeying a 9 to 5 cubicle job; it’s an area of daily new challenges to pass on to next level. It requires diversity of skills employing everyone deserving to choose as a career.

This is a technical journey of any structure or thoughts right from the foundation to finishing and external works. In building construction, we study how the civil works are carried out in the field after they have been planned by an architect and structurally designed by an engineer. A toddler whenever points his finger towards the swinging tower crane enjoying like the dance of a robot, it’s duty of the project team to work successfully building block by block over heights.

As we are talking about the heights, so let me take you to the most heighted man-made structure! No required nominees, it’s Burj Khalifa, Dubai (or you can even argue with one of the most famous buildings, because 830 metres is really a good number).

Burj Khalifa, Dubai (source: internet)

Heard about World One? A structure finding it’s place to be the tallest residential skyscraper, yet under construction of Lodha group, Mumbai.

World One, Mumbai (source: internet)

I’ve my stomach full with all these heights as you will mostly get in my next blog; until then let’s see some amazing constructions. The great man-made river project in Libya has listed as the biggest irrigation project in the world. Underneath of the Sahara Desert, it consists of 2800 pipes carrying 6.5 million cubic metres of fresh water every day.

Great man-made River, Libya (source: internet)

The most beautiful building in Jakarta, Regatta Hotel complex was designed by Atelier Enam. The project’s centrepiece is the aerodynamic hotel itself that overlooks the Java sea. Now wondered that struggle to be in top 10 beautiful buildings!

Hotel Regatta, Jakarta (source: internet)

But, who knew that continuous endless building of structures would permit to cease for a no while. Because of the nature of his projects, all industries and companies are surged down to a force majeure. The workers are avoiding the work at construction sites due to fear of coronavirus infection. Threatening situations are discovered due to this pandemic endangering future of the construction world.

People are particularly trying to reach out finding alternatives as I mentioned in my previous blog (A virus outside the computer). Also, many cities have adopted a definition of essential construction that allows any work necessary to build, operate, maintain or manufacture essential infrastructure without limitation construction or the constructions required in response to this public health emergency, hospital constructions, etc.

According to the industry body, there are around 20,000 ongoing projects across the country and construction work is being undertaken in around 18,000 of them i.e. involvement of workforce of about 8.5 million in construction work alone! These numbers are breath-taking when the health concerns. The scenario implies that the construction work will be slow, pushing costs upward given the interest and debt servicing needed for that extra period. Definitely it will have its own consequences, but would be better far than doing nothing.
Hoping the same as everyone to defeat this monster, hiding myself from the fact that I’m bored writing about it  ; )

A virus outside the computer

It’s 8:15 a.m. and absolutely as usual late for my 8:00 am daily soap. I was busy fastening my wrist watch, rustling all the books with my new unbranded clinging earphones, unplugging my smartphone and my steps speeded up out my house for the very first lecture. I’m sure most of you might have started their morning hurry to get at their offices, opening laptops, calling, mailing and the day goes over. This techno-chain would snap off by frequent use of electronic media and data transmission which has demolished the health of computer.

In those days, we were just aware of virus in the computer until a virus outside the computer invaded in the whole world! It seemed like the technologies and inventions built for faster, better and easier lives are now hampered and shutdown. After lockdown, coronavirus created a wreak havoc on markets, industries and businesses around the world. I was partly happy for no more daily exercises to get ready for college, but my immatured mind realised late that situation was even worse.

COVID-19, the raving word with all letters capital and two numerics was found to spread haphazardly like a fire in the forest. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has declared this virus as pandemic for spreading at least in 170 countries and territories. When the death rates increased in India, I had to put finger on my lips for not uttering to go out.

The multinational companies and software sectors started a new way of interrupting happy quarantine of their employees by allowing them to work from home. College faculties too got inspired and started online lectures and assignments. Fortunately, schools are still closed. But truly, businesses and startups have faced a severe heart break. One can hardly estimate the loss and the struggle required to tackle up.

Also see: How Coronavirus lead to Great Delays in the Construction World?

As people are advised to stay at home and avoid contact with others, a cascade of cancellations and postponements of major events from tech & sports to entertainment & politics has wiped off the calendar. The Tokyo 2020 Olympic games, IPL 2020, EA eSports, many movie blockbusters, singing concerts, stage shows and competitions, council meetings, political party speeches, etc. have either altered release dates or cancelled until 3 months.

In all these shutdowns, the groceries are a beacon of light for providing my favourite biscuits and all daily essentials to people. Medical facilities, police force, emergency services are also not behind in providing relief to all. Inspite of restricted production these are meeting the requirements appreciably.

Since past many decades, no one had ever seen such huge nuisance in the world! This has even brought threat to the economy breaking the supply chain of human lifestyle. The ill-effects will also continue after corona outbreak if human tends to carry forward the current environmental conditions. We all should take a challenge to restore the virus again inside the computer and have efficient use of technologies with due care. And surely, I’m missing my college more…

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