Important Stages of Development of Underground Water Systems

As observed earlier, we came across about the construction of tunnel marking it as transit system for transport of man and machines. It too serves as water supply system conveying importance in this blog.

Two millennia ago, the ancient Romans utilized large aqueducts to transport water from higher heights by building the water channels in graduated segments that permitted gravity to push the water along until it arrived at its destination. Hundreds of these were built throughout Europe and elsewhere, and along with flour mills were considered the lifeline of the Roman Empire. Since then, the Ancient Chinese made use of channels and pipe systems for public works. A time of water transport and it’s organizing began!

Chain pumps used in Ancient World

Have you heard about chain pumps? It is a type of water pump in which several circular discs are positioned on an endless chain. One part of the chain dips into the water and it becomes trapped between the discs and is lifted to and discharged at the top. These chain pumps were brought up by famous Han Dynasty court Eunuch Zhang Rang serviced the imperial palaces and living quarters of the capital city with the help of stoneware pipe system.

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How are these developed?

Water pipelines

When a pipeline is built, the construction project not only covers the civil engineering work to lay the pipeline and build the pump/compressor stations, it also has to cover all the work related to the installation of the field devices that will support remote operation.

A pipeline is routed along what is known as a “right of way” using following stages –

  • Open season to determine market interest: Potential customers are given the chance to sign up for part of the new pipeline’s capacity rights.
  • Route (right of way) selection
  • Pipeline design: The pipeline project may take a number of forms, including the construction of a new pipeline, conversion of existing pipeline from one fuel type to another, or improvements to facilities on a current pipeline route.
  • Obtaining approval: Once the design is finalized and the first pipeline customers have purchased their share of capacity, the project must be approved by the relevant regulatory agencies.
  • Surveying the route
  • Clearing the route
  • Trenching – Main Route and Crossings (roads, rail, other pipes, etc.)
  • Installing the pipe
  • Installing valves, intersections, etc.
  • Covering the pipe and trench
  • Testing: Once construction is completed, the new pipeline is subjected to tests to ensure its structural integrity. These may include hydrostatic testing and line packing. Likewise incorporates checking of leakages assuming any.

What are different types of materials used for water transport lines?

Longevity is particularly important for inaccessible pipes, such as under-slab supply lines. As climatic conditions affect the pipe’s performance, several types of pipes to construct underground service and water lines include synthetic and metal pipes.

Types of pipes

Natural to gardeners and landscapers, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes securely deliver water both above and below ground. In spite of the fact that PVC is available in a wide variety of types, standard home improvement stores commonly stock a white, thin-walled schedule 40 PVC and a gray, thick-walled schedule 80 PVC. PVC pipes connect via a gluing process — called solvent welding — or with threaded, screw-like fittings. However, CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride) withstands greater temperatures and pressures than standard PVC catering hot and cold water systems.

Copper pipes are rigid and resistant to corrosion but deteriorate under certain soil conditions. Getting ranked in metal markets, it’s more expensive than plastics such as PVC and CPVC.

PEX or Cross-linked polyethylene is a flexible tubing material capable of stretching around bends and turns without pipe fittings. It withstands chemical damage, high temperature and high pressure. Unlike PVC and CPVC, which connect via glued fittings, PEX connects via threaded, compression fittings.

For a wonder if you have a pre-1970s house, trying a luck to get found, you could still have galvanized water lines in your house. Galvanized piping has a functional life of 40 to 50 years. But due to labor and time that goes into cutting, threading and installing, it’s obsolete, except for limited use in repairs.

Leakage Detection

Since fluids like water, oil and gas pipelines are an important asset of the economic development of almost any country, it’s working and maintenance needs a special assistance for both population and environment to run well. Among the most widely recognised innovation to protect pipelines from occasional leaks is Computational Pipeline Monitoring or CPM. CPM takes data from the field identified with pressures, flows, and temperatures to estimate the hydraulic behavior of the product being transported. When the estimation is finished, the outcomes are contrasted with other field references to detect the presence of an anomaly or unexpected situation, which may be related to a leak…

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29 thoughts on “Important Stages of Development of Underground Water Systems

    1. Thanks Avishkar 😍. I’m really glad that you liked it 😊. Inspite of being from Non civil background, you really seems to have interest in other things too!
      Truly over whelmed by your support ☺️

      Like

    1. Thanks for your appreciation! Well this is a good question, as a part of developing environment we surely cannot ignore the effects produced. Yes definitely it will affect the underground nature, leakages if not concerned may lead to deteriorate of soil and plants, breakages or clogging of many pipes creeate huge nuisance among localities which all we shouldn’t avoid. Sometimes improper use of type of materials have also lead to failure of water transport! It’s really a great issue.
      Most of the fluid mechanics works under this and find the way out. It makes me feel better that we are very much aware of cons too.
      Thanks a lot for reading.πŸ’―

      Liked by 2 people

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